Iroquoia
Iroquoia
 
Iroquoia - a peer-reviewed journal

CALL FOR SUBMISSIONS (Issue #3)

Articles are sought for the journal’s third issue. Your scholarly papers on any subject related to the Iroquois are most welcome. Disciplines such as history, anthropology, archaeology, linguistics, art, literature, ecology, political science, and education may be appropriate formats for articles. This is a peer-reviewed publication. Your article will be sent to three anonymous peer reviewers. Please allow time for their thoughtful responses.

Deadline for the next issue is April 1st, 2017

For additional information, please contact the publication's editor, Kathryn Merriam.
Your participation as author and reviewer are most welcome.


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Issue #2


Volume 2 - Number 1
Autumn 2016

Style Guide
SAMPLE PAGES
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Inside Issue #2


Featured Artist: Brandon Lazore

Onondaga - Snipe Clan

Victoria Ransom

Biography
Brandon Lazore, snipe clan member from Onondaga Nation, grew up in Syracuse, New York and completed his studies at Onondaga Community College. "At school, I developed a love for painting on canvases, a form of art I had never attempted in the past. When I was fifteen I started out my art career as a graffiti artist. I would paint murals in cities along the east coast with other graffiti artist. Today, I use a paintbrush instead of a spray can. I call my style of art "Traditional Graffiti" - because I mix my graffiti style with a traditional Haudenosaunee culture."

Follow his work
http://www.artworkbybrandonlazore.com
https://www.facebook.com/brandon.lazore.3
https://www.facebook.com/BrandonLazoreart






Hearing the Voices of Iroquois Women: A Council at Grand River, 1802

Edward Countryman, Southern Methodist University

Abstract
Deep within the twenty-two folios of Thayendanagea/Joseph Brant material in the Lyman Draper Collection at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, there hides the record of a council on the Six Nations Reserve at Grand River, in what is now Ontario. The date was May 2, in the year 1802. The record is only one page long, a very small item in the Brant collection, let alone Draper’s enormous trove. The document is in Draper’s handwriting; it appears to be his transcription of minutes that Brant originally took. Brant’s is the only name in the record, a sign, perhaps, of the position he still held among the Grand River people, despite the Six Nations’ frustration with him as their spokesman to British authorities, and despite his own situation at Grand River being so precarious that he was on the point of leaving. The council brought together Grand River’s women and its chiefs. The council record presents a very rare demonstration of how Haudenosaunee women took direct, active part in their people’s public affairs during the era of conflict with others, strife among themselves, forced migration and exile, broken promises, and difficult resettlement that for them meant living through the American Revolution. Their immediate issue was simple. They wanted “spirituous liquors” removed from the Reserve and its environs. But carefully read, this small, inconspicuous document indicates that they had other business and long memory on their minds as well. To really understand it means appreciating much larger issues.

The Munsees of Cattaraugus: An Episode in Iroquois History

James D. Folts, New York State Archives

Abstract
The place is Cattaraugus, today a territory of the Seneca Indian Nation near Lake Erie in western New York. That is the English spelling of a Seneca place name meaning “smelly banks” or “smelly clay,” referring to smells from the banks of the creek. The smell was petroleum; a traveler in 1809 wrote that oily scum on the creek waters sometimes caught fire. French maps of the mid-eighteenth century have the name Rivière puante (“smelly,” “stinky”). Cattaraugus had another native name in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, because it was the home not only of Senecas but also of Munsee Delawares. The name in Munsee, attested by Moravian mission diary entries and Delaware tradition, was ptukwíimung. It meant “walnut place,” for the huge black walnut trees that grew along the creek. Between 1780 and about 1810 Cattaraugus was a bi-national community of Senecas and Munsees, which provides a well-documented example of the relationship between an Iroquois nation and a dependent people, real not abstract, flawed not perfect.

We have none to part with:
Conflict Over Land in Western New York, 1794-1819

Elana Krischer, University at Albany

Abstract
In July of 1819, Seneca leaders and representatives of the Ogden Land Company gathered at the Buffalo Creek Reservation in western New York to negotiate Seneca consolidation at Allegany, one of the other remaining Seneca reservations. Judge Morris S. Miller, acting as U.S. commissioner, urged the Seneca to sell their land, as the Seneca were not properly using it. He argued that keeping more land than was necessary for Seneca livelihood was selfish. Commissioner Miller conveyed President Monroe’s thoughts on Seneca land use to the Council: “…it is not right for any tribe or people, to withhold from the wants of others, more than is necessary for their own support and comfort. Your great Father…cannot be moved by ambition, for his power and authority are not increased by the arrangement he proposes. He already rules from the Saint Lawrence beyond the Mississippi; from the Ocean to the Lakes.”

The Maniwaki Wampum Group: A History

Marshall Joseph Becker, West Chester University

Abstract
Although the Algonkian speaking peoples generally were marginal to the Core Area of wampum diplomacy, an important group of four belts and a “hand” of wampum has been associated with the Anishinabeg band of Algonquin for perhaps as long as 170 years. Four of these five items, collectively called the “Maniwaki” wampum, had been held by the elder named William Commanda for more than 40 years. His recent death, at 98 years of age, has renewed interest in the processes that relate to the maintenance and transmission of cultural (communal) property. Among various Iroquoian groups there is a long history, dating back to at least 1750, of communal wampum becoming private property (see Weiser 1851; Becker 2013b). The Algonquin “Maniwaki” case revives interest in this topic as these examples of wampum are now in private hands. A review of the possible origins, individual identification and history of the “Maniwaki” wampum offers instructive information regarding how these cultural properties were preserved and how they can be identified. This Algonquin example also illustrates traditional ways of holding communal property that have led Native as well as non-Native peoples to believe Heckewelder’s opinion regarding a formal role of “wampum keeper” and idealized stories regarding how cultural property was tended in the past. This study applies to wampum as well as to cultural property held by, or lost from, Aboriginal groups throughout the world.

Book Reviews




Issue #1


Volume 1 - Number 1
Autumn 2015

Style Guide
SAMPLE PAGES

Digital PDF Edition

Cost: $10.00 USD
*NOTE: Please allow 12-48 hours for processing.
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Limited Print Copy

***SOLD OUT***
USA: $10.00 + $3.00 P&H = $13.00 USD
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Inside Issue #1


Featured Artist: Victoria Ransom

Mohawk from Akwesasne

Victoria Ransom

Biography
Born and raised in Akwesasne, Victoria Ransom is a multi-disciplinary artist, who speaks on many Indigenous issues using sculpture, installation, painting and performance. In an attempt to further explore her identity, Victoria works with ink drawings, using traditional Iroquois symbolism as her main inspiration. Victoria graduated with a Bachelors of Fine Arts and a Minor in Aboriginal Studies from the University of Ottawa. She resides in her community of Akwesasne, where she works as the Staff Artist for the Native North American Travelling College.

Follow her work
https://www.facebook.com/Wahiia/
https://wahiia.wordpress.com/





A Wampum Belt Sent to Edward Jenner, M.D.

Marshall Joseph Becker

Abstract
Following a program of vaccination for several First Nations peoples, representatives of these Five Nations tribes met with officials at Fort George, Upper Canada in 1807 to present formal thanks to Edward Jenner. These elders also wished to send to Jenner a belt of wampum and a string of wampum as a gift, in return for his gift of vaccination. Information regarding the possible configuration of that belt, and the ultimate disposition of these two examples of wampum, provide insights into examples of these Native American items that may still survive in European collections.

Captain John Archiquette
A Federal Indian Policeman in the Gilded Age

Laurence M. Hauptman
L. Gordon McLester


Abstract
The John Archiquette Collection, recently acquired by Yale University’s Beinecke Rare Book and Library, provides insights about the Wisconsin Oneidas during the Gilded Age. It also challenges many assumptions about federal Indian agency constabularies and their operations in the last decades of the nineteenth century. The collection is composed of church records, correspondence to the Office of Indian Affairs in Washington and to the Indian agency headquarters at Keshena, Wisconsin, diary notations in both Oneida and English about community events, tribal censuses and account books, and police reports for nearly a quarter of a century. Archiquette served as a federal lawman at the Wisconsin Oneida reservation from 1877 to 1901, and was officially appointed to the post of chief of police in 1881. His five-man constabulary at Oneida enforced the laws on the 65,400-acre reservation, 40 miles away from Keshena and approximately 1500 hundred miles from the Office of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C.

Tiononderogue:
The Struggle for a Mohawk Town 1686-1797

Ann Hunter

Abstract
In 1786 a Mohawk leader named Aneqwendahonji, or Johannes Crine, filed a petition with the New York State Legislature that tells a compelling story. At the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, Aneqwendahonji lived with his people at a place on the Mohawk River called Tiononderogue, where the Mohawks had been "from time Immemorial." He owned "three Good Dwelling Houses, two Barns and an Orchard thereon, And was also possessed of a considerable personal Estate consisting of Household, furniture, Farming Utentials, Cattle Horses, Sheep, Swine, etc." The petition recounts how Aneqwendahonji remained friendly to the Americans during the war. In 1780, he left his home to go on an American mission to Fort Niagara with three companions, but at Niagara the British put them in jail. Soon afterwards British troops raided the Mohawk Valley and took his wife and family prisoner. At the end of the war Aneqwendahonji returned home to find that the City of Albany and private individuals had taken the Mohawks' lands, improvements, livestock, and household goods, leaving them destitute and homeless. Aneqwendahonji and the other Mohawk people who lived at Tiononderogue before the Revolution never got back their lands. This paper examines the hundred-year process that led up to their loss.

The Peacemaker, I Presume?
Journeys up the Historical Streams of Iroquois Scholarship

Ian Kalman

Abstract
North American anthropology began with the study of the continent’s indigenous peoples. Of those peoples, the Iroquois were among the earliest and most significant scholastic topic. Within Iroquois scholarship, the foundation of the Iroquois Confederacy stands out as a critical issue, which has been addressed differently over time.

Evidence for Rock Art in Iroquoia

Francis Scardera

Abstract
The cultural landscape of the Northeast, specifically Iroquoia, has often been considered by some as void or unadorned by the vestiges of rock art. The debate continues over whether there is sufficient evidence for the existence of rock art amongst the Iroquois during both Contact and Pre-Contact periods and how these representations manifest themselves onto the cultural landscape. The following article reviews both the archaeological record and ethnographic references documenting rock art sightings in Iroquoia while elucidating some of the challenges in assigning cultural affiliations to these works. To further our understanding of art as displayed in the Iroquois landscape, it is also proposed to broaden the perimeter of cultural activity and shift from a focus on a single medium - rock faces, to a larger cultural landscape where consideration is given to other less conspicuous media that may have eluded the archaeological record.

Iroquoia